An opinionated guide to building APIs with Akka-Http

Akka-Http is my preferred framework for building APIs, but there are some things I have picked up along the way. For one thing, Akka-Http is very un-opinionated in its approach, there are often lots of ways to do the same thing, and there isn't a lot of opinionated guidance about how to do things.

I have been writing Akka-Http APIs for I guess about 18 months now (not long, I know), having previously worked predominantly with libraries like Spring, and I have seen some pretty nasty code resulting from the this (by this I mean, I have written nasty code - not intentionally, of course, but from good intentions starting off trying to write, clean, idiomatic Akka-Http code, and ending up in huge sprawling routing classes which are un-readable and generally not very nice).

The routing DSL is Akka-Http is pretty nice, but can quickly become unwieldy. For example, let's imagine you start off with something like this:

This looks nice right? A simple nested approach to the routing structure that reflects the URL hierarchy and the HTTP method etc. However, as you can probably imagine, try and scale this up to a full application it can very easily become fairly messy. The nested directives make it nice to group routes under similar root URLs but as you do that you end up with very long, arrow-shaped code that actually isn’t that easy to follow - if you have several endpoints nested within the structure it actually becomes quite hard to work out what endpoints there are and what is handling what.

Another problem that needs to be managed is that with the first one or two endpoints you might put the handling code directly in the routing structure, which is ok for very small numbers, but it needs to be managed sensibly as the endpoints grow and your routing structure starts to look more and more sprawling.

It is of course personal preference, but even with the simple example above, I don’t like the level of nesting that already exists there to simply define the mapping of the GET HTTP method and a given URL - and if you add more endpoints and start to break down the URL with additional directives per URL section then the nesting increases.

To simplify the code, and keep it clean from the start I go for the following approach:

  1. Make sure your Routing classes are sensibly separated - probably by the URL root (e.g. have a single UserRoutes class that handles all URLs under /users) to avoid them growing too much
  2. Hand off all business logic (well, within reason) to a service class - I use Scala’s Self-Type notation to handle this and keep it nicely de-coupled
  3. Use custom directives & non-nested routings to make the DSL more concise

Most of these steps are simple and self explanatory, so its probably just step 3 that needs some more explanation. To start with, here is a simple example:

You can see points 1 and 2 simply enough, but you will also notice that my endpoints are simple functions, without multiple levels of nesting (we may need some additional nesting at some point, as some endpoints will likely need other akka-http directives, but we can strive to keep it minimal). 

You might notice I have duplicated the URL section “users” rather than nesting it - some people might not like this duplication (and I guess risk of error/divergence of URLs - but that can be mitigated with having predefined constants instead of explicit strings), but I prefer the readability and simplicity of this over extensive nesting.

Custom Directives

First off, I have simply combined a couple of existing directives to make it more concise. Normally, you might have several levels of nested directives such as one or more pathPrefix(“path”) sections, the HTTP Method such as get{} another one to match pathEndOrSingleslash{} - To avoid this I have concatenated some of these to convenient single points.

getPath, postPath, putPath, etc simply combine the HTTP method with the URL path-matcher, and also includes the existing Akka-Http directive “redirectToTrailingSlashIfMissing” which avoids having to specify matching on either a slash or path end, and instead allows you to always match exact paths - It basically squashes the three directives in the original HelloWorld example above down to one simple, readable directive.

Custom Serialisation

You may also notice, I have implemented a custom method called “respond” - I use this to handle the serialisation of the response to a common JSON shape and to handle errors. Using this approach, I define a custom Response wrapper type that is essentially an Either of our internal custom error type and a valid response type T (implementation details below) - this means in all our code we have a consistent type that can be used to handle errors and ensure consistent responses.

This respond method simply expects a Response type to be passed to it (along with an optional success status code - defaulting to 200 OK, but can be provided to support alternative success codes). The method then uses Circe and Shapeless to convert the Response to a common JSON object. 

Let’s have a look at some of the details, first the custom types I have defined for errors and custom Response type:

Simple, now let’s take a look at the implementation of the respond method:

It might look daunting (or not, depending on your familiarity with Scala and Shapeless), but its relatively simple. The two implicit Encoder arguments that are included on the method signature simply ensure that whatever type A is in the provided Response[A], Circe & shapeless are able to serialise it. If you try to pass some response to this method that can’t be serialised you get a compile error. After that, all it does is wraps the response A in a common message and returns that along with an appropriate (or provided) HTTP status code.

You might also notice the final result is built using the wrap method in the ResponseWrapperEncoder trait - this allows easy extension/overriding of what the common response message looks like.


All of this machinery is of course abstracted away to a common library that can be used across different projects, and so, in reality it means we have a consistent, clean API with simple routing classes as simple and neat as below, whilst also handing off our business logic to neater, testable services.

All the code for my opinionated library and an example API is all on GitHub, and it is currently in progress with more ideas underway!